Diabetes falls under the index of the most prevalent diseases across the globe. Every year World Diabetes Day is celebrated on November 14 to reach maximum people and educate them about the prevention and management of diabetes. The theme of World Diabetes Day for the year 2019 is Family and Diabetes. As per WHO, around 422 million people suffer from diabetes globally. Under 2016 diabetes country profiles, it was stated that the mortality rate in India was 75900 among males and 51700 among females.
Diabetes is a metabolic disease and broadly categorised under two types - Type 1 and 2. Type 1 diabetes or IDDM (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus) is characterized by the lack of production of insulin in the body. This type of diabetes prevails in children as well. In Type 2 diabetes, either there is insufficient production of insulin or body is unable to utilise the same efficiently. This type is also referred to as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). Prolonged elevated blood sugar levels, obesity, and physical inactivity are some of the underlying causes of type 2 diabetes and the majority of diabetic people fall under this category of diabetes.
In 1991, World Diabetes Day was created under the joint coopetition of World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). This year the theme aims to enlighten the role of the family in the care, support and managing diabetes. Due to unawareness of signs, symptoms and risk factors; in many cases, diabetes remains undiagnosed.
Complications of Diabetes
- Diabetes has been significantly associated with multiple consequences.
- It can affect the normal functioning of the kidney and lead to renal failure.
- Diabetes may mutilate our blood vessels of nerves, eyes and heart.
- Diabetic retinopathy is another major consequence of diabetes, which one of the leading causes of blindness.
- Eventually, diabetes can result in delayed wound healing which can stem to ulcers or cause limb amputations.
Prevention of Diabetes
Diabetes is easy to manage with some lifestyle and dietary modifications. But our primary goal should be to prevent and reduce the risk of developing diabetes.
- An active lifestyle is the key. Regular physical activity helps in boosting metabolic rate and regulate blood glucose levels. It ensures effective utilization of carbohydrates in our body and prevents the accumulation of undesirable fat.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Refrain from excess consumption of three whites - salt, sugar and refined flour (maida).
- Consume healthy carbs in the diet. Focus on complex carbohydrates instead of simple ones.
- Avoid the consumption of refined based foods, beverages, packaged, processed and ready-to-eat foods.
- Consuming plenty of fruits and vegetables also reduces the likelihood of developing diabetes. Make sure to consume at least 35-40 g of dietary fibre per day.
- Avoid indulging in alcohol and tobacco use.
- People who have a family history of diabetes should regularly monitor their blood sugar and cholesterol levels. Undergo HbA1C test at least twice per year.
Diabetes. (2018), World Health Organisation. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes
Diabetes: the basics(N.D), Diabetes UK. Retrieved from https://www.diabetes.org.uk/diabetes-the-basics
World diabetes day(N.D), International Diabetes Federation. Retrieved from https://idf.org/54-our-activities/171-world-diabetes-day.html
About World diabetes day(N.D), International Diabetes Federation. Retrieved from https://worlddiabetesday.org/about/2019-theme/
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